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Southern Thailand’s phantom insurgency

By Murray Hunter - posted Thursday, 1 April 2021

Life in Thailand’s southernmost border provinces, Narathiwat, Yala, and Patani has taken on a sense of normality over the last 12 months that belies a media-preoccupied insurgency that has largely disappeared.

There is an atmosphere of indifference to the presence of the Thai military and paramilitary forces and daily media reports of violence. But the rituals of Covid-19 safety procedures have taken over from the inconvenience of military and police roadblocks, which appear mostly semi-abandoned these days.

The armored troop carriers purchased and widely distributed to units around the region, only a little over a year ago, are starting to look old and weathered from being parked for long periods of time. Many makeshift garrisons look semi-abandoned next to unused barriers along the rural roads. The only signs of any rebel actions are media reports of shootings and murders with dubious provenance.


The Deep South has witnessed the opening of many new businesses. Thai returnees from working in Malaysia have opened new restaurants and coffee shops, building innovative brands of fusion food in the major towns of Patani and Yala. Nightlife is vibrant for those interested in dining, open to the late hours of the mornings.

Thailand’s CP Group is actively building halal supply chains, logistics and brand franchises in the region. CP Group has launched a large range of halal versions of its product range and a network of franchised and specially-branded, Five Star Salam chicken restaurants in the region.

The road between Yala and Betong, the province’s southernmost district, is now full of tourist attractions boasting brisk business on weekends from local tourists, who would have otherwise just driven straight through. Betong itself is abuzz with activity bracing for the durian season and coming Songkran festival, with large groups expected to view the sunrise from the mountains in places like Talay Mok Aiyoeweng, with its new array of guest houses, home stays and rafting expeditions. Last weekend, more than 4,000 people came to Patani to run in the TIST Half Marathon, organized by the local university, with most hotel rooms around town booked out for the event. 

What is most visible within the region is that the people are now openly expressing Malay culture through language, commerce, dress, worship, and cultural confidence, which gives the appearance that the region is independent and self-sufficient under Thai sovereignty. This appears to be the generally accepted view of the majority living within the region, according to a number of community thinkers across the provinces, who spoke to Asia Sentinel.

Other pointers towards confidence in the future by the Malay communities is the extent of property development, growing tourism infrastructure being developed, and growing investment in developing local businesses.

Meanwhile Facebook and Twitter removed thousands of fake accounts, pages, and groups, alleged to be linked to the Thai Army. According to his tweet, the head of security policy at Facebook, Nathaniel Gleicher confirmed that the military had used fake accounts posing as individuals from the southern provinces to criticize separatist movements and support the monarchy and the military.


Allegedly false information was spread across a number of pages and groups, giving the appearance the information was true. Some of these posts called for violence against insurgents. This follows Twitter closing 926 accounts in October last year that were allegedly controlled by the army. Thai Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-ocha has ordered an investigation on the claims made by Facebook.

According to locals who spoke to Asia Sentinel, there is criticism that the media has been blowing up incidents within the south, associating them with the ongoing insurgency. The DeepSouthWatch.Orgdatabase which collates all reported incidents within the region, in January only linked 13 of 40 incidents directly with the insurgency.

Most of the incidents were murders by shootings, with only three bombings. Many of the alleged perpetrators of these incidents have outstanding warrants on them. Many incidents have alternative narratives involving crime, drugs, territorial disputes, jealousies, and other rivalries, quite separate from the insurgency.

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This article was first published on Asia Sentinel.

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About the Author

Murray Hunter is an associate professor at the University Malaysia Perlis. He blogs at Murray Hunter.

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