Last month at a university lecture in Kolkata, India, the Dalai Lama declared that, when it comes to "socio-economic theory", he is a Marxist. His reasoning was as follows:
"In capitalist countries, there is an increasing gap between the rich and the poor. In Marxism, there is emphasis on equal distribution."
The Dalai Lama joins a growing list of religious leaders, including Pope Francis, and other global celebrities, to declare an affinity with the notion of 'equal distribution of wealth', an idea that is widely (but wrongly) regarded as being Marxist. A leftist influenced by Marxism does not ask, "How can wealth be distributed more equitably?" but rather "Who produces the wealth in the first place?" And: "Why does socially produced wealth end up in the hands of the owners of the means of producing it (machines, factories, raw materials, etc) rather than in the hands of those without whom it could not have been generated?"
The positive side of the publicity is that Marxism is of international interest again, as a theory that helps to understand the dynamics of capitalism. This is happening at a time when, in the advanced economies, capitalism isn't delivering the promised goods any more and growing numbers of people are pissed off.
But, one must feel some sympathy for old Karl. His exasperation with those who adopted the brand without understanding the content led him to declare 150 years ago that "If anything is certain, it is that I myself am not a Marxist". Marxism is not, and has never been, about the equal distribution of wealth.
'To each according to his contribution': Marx's Critique of the Gotha Programme
In his Critique of the Gotha Programme, written as a letter in 1875 in response to the draft platform of the German Social Democratic Workers Party (SDAP), Marx pulled no punches when he described the idea of "fair distribution" being proposed by the SDAP as "obsolete verbal rubbish", which 'perverted a realistic outlook'.
He first tackles the proposal in the draft platform that "the proceeds of labor belong undiminished with equal right to all members of society" and asks: "'To all members of society'? To those who do not work as well? What remains then of the 'undiminished' proceeds of labor? Only to those members of society who work? What remains then of the 'equal right' of all members of society?"
Marx then dissects the notion of "proceeds of labor" in the sense of "a product of labor" with the co-operative proceeds "the total social product".
"From this", he points out, "must now be deducted: First, cover for replacement of the means of production used up. Second, additional portion for expansion of production. Third, reserve or insurance funds to provide against accidents, dislocations caused by natural calamities, etc. These deductions from the 'undiminished' proceeds of labor are an economic necessity, and their magnitude is to be determined according to available means and forces, and partly by computation of probabilities, but they are in no way calculable by equity".
He continues: "There remains the other part of the total product, intended to serve as means of consumption. Before this is divided among the individuals, there has to be deducted again, from it: First, the general costs of administration not belonging to production. This part will, from the outset, be very considerably restricted in comparison with present-day society, and it diminishes in proportion as the new society develops. Second, that which is intended for the common satisfaction of needs, such as schools, health services, etc. From the outset, this part grows considerably in comparison with present-day society, and it grows in proportion as the new society develops. Third, funds for those unable to work, etc., in short, for what is included under so-called official poor relief today. Only now do we come to the 'distribution'… to that part of the means of consumption which is divided among the individual producers of the co-operative society".
As Marx notes, the "undiminished" proceeds of labor in the draft have now become converted into the "diminished" proceeds, "although what the producer is deprived of in his capacity as a private individual benefits him directly or indirectly in his capacity as a member of society".